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University of Cambridge Home Intellectual Property and Copyright in the Digital Environment
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University of Cambridge > CARET > Intellectual Property and Copyright in the Digital Environment

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4.4.1 Who is the author of a work?
Type of work
Who is the author under UK law?
Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work
The person who creates it.
Photographs
Photographs made on or after 1 July 1912 and before 1 August 1989 - the owner of the film/negative is the ‘author’, unless the photograph was commissioned.  If commissioned, the commissioner is the copyright owner. 
Photographs made before 1 July 1912 or on or after 1 August 1989 - the photographer is the ‘author’, unless employed and the photograph was taken in the course of that employment.  If the photographer took the photograph in the course of their employment, the employer is the copyright owner. 
Sound recording
The producer (that is, the person who undertakes the arrangements necessary for the making of the recording)
Film
Films made on or after 1 July 1994 – the producer (that is, the person who undertakes the arrangements necessary for the making of the film), and the principal director.
Films made before 1 July 1994 – the producer only.
The typographical arrangement of a published edition
The publisher.
Computer generated literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work where there is no human author
The person by whom the arrangements necessary for the creation of the work are undertaken. 
Information current as at 12 September 2005.
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